Uttar Pradesh Lok Sabha Election results 2019 complete list of winners updating live: The Election Commission of India (ECI) is all set to announce the results for Lok Sabha elections 2019. The elections in Uttar Pradesh were held in all seven phases between April 11 to May 19 and now its time for the results. Stakes are high for 80 Lok Sabha seats of Uttar Pradesh and every political front is claiming to win the maximum number of seats. The contest is between BJP, SP-BSP-RLD alliance (Mahagathbandhan) and Congress. The trio has done every possible effort to woo the voters and results will show that people of the states have chosen which party and candidate for the next 5 years. In 2014, under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, BJP had clean bold everybody and bagged 71 out of 80 seats.
On the national level, BJP had won 282 seats and National Democratic Alliance (NDA) had won 336 seats out of 543. It was the first time that even the anti-BJP voters including Muslims, Yadavs and Dalits had voted for BJP. The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) which is said to be a Dalit party was unable to win any seat in the state. However, Samajwadi Party and Congress managed to save bastions Firozabad, Manipuri, Badaun, Kannauj, Azamgarh Rae Bareli and Amethi.
List of Declared Winners
Agra- BJP – Satyapal Singh Baghel- 211546
Akbarpur- BJP- Devendra Singh Bhole- 275142
Aligarh- BJP- Satish Kumar Gautam- 229261
Allahabad- BJP- Rita Bahuguna Joshi- 184275
Ambedkar Nagar- BSP- Ritesh Pandey-95880
Amethi- BJP- Smriti Irani- 55120
Amroha- BSP-Kunwar Danish Ali-63248
Aonla- BJP-Dharmendra Kashyap-113743
Azamgarh- SP-Akhilesh Yadav-259874
Badaun- BJP-Dr Sanghmitra Maurya-18454
Baghpat- BJP- Dr Satyapal Singh- 18454
Bahraich- BJP- Akshaibar Lal-128752
Ballia- BJP-Virendra Singh-15519
Banda- BJP- R.K Singh Patel- 58938
Bansgaon- BJP- Kamlesh Paswan- 153468
Barabanki- BJP- Upendra Singh Rawat-110140
Bareilly- BJP-Santosh Kumar Gangwar-167282
Basti- BJP- Harish Chandra alias Harish Dwivedi- 30354
Bhadohi- BJP-Ramesh Chand- 43615
Bijnor- BSP-Malook Nagar-69941
Chandauli- BJP-Dr Mahendra Nath Pandey-13959
Deoria-BJP-Ramapati Ram Tripathi-249931
Dhaurahra- BJP-Rekha Verma-160611
Etawah-BJP-Dr Ram Shankar Katheria-64437
Fatehpur Sikri- BJP-Rajkumar Chahar-495065
Firozabad-BJP-Dr Chandra Sen Jadon-28781
Gautam Buddha Nagar-BJP-Dr Mahesh Sharma-336922
Ghaziabad-BJP-Vijay Kumar Singh-501500
Ghosi-BSP-Atul Kumar Singh-122568
Gonda- BJP- Kirti Vardhan Singh/Raja Bhaiya 166360
Hamirpur-BJP-Kunwar Pushpendra Singh Chandel-248652
Jalaun-BJP-Bhanu Pratap Singh Verma- 158377
Jaunpur-BSP-Shyam Singh Yadav-80936
Kaiserganj-BJP-Brijbhusan Sharan Singh-261601
Kannauj- BJP-Subrat Pathak-12353
Kaushambi-BJP-Vinod Kumar Sonkar-38722
Kushi Nagar-BJP-Vijay Kumar Dubey-337560
Mainpuri-SP-Mulayam Singh Yadav-94389
Mirzapur-Apna Dal (Soneylal)-Anupriya Singh Patel-232008
Misrikh-BJP-Ashok Kumar Rawat
Moradabad-SP-Dr. S.T Hasan-97878
Muzaffarnagar-BJP-Sanjeev Kumar Balyan-6526
Phulpur-BJP-Keshari Devi Patel-171968
Pilibhit-BJP-Feroze Varun Gandhi-255627
Pratapgarh-BJP-Sangam Lal Gupta-117752
Rae Bareli-INC-Sonia Gandhi-167178
Rampur- SP-Mohammed Azam Khan-109997
Robertsganj-Apna Dal (Soneylal)-Pakauri Lal Kol-54336
Saharanpur-BSP-Haji Fazlur Rehman-22417
Sambhal-SP-Dr Shafiqur Rehman Barq-174826
Sant Kabir Nagar-BJP-Praveen Kumar Nishad-35749
Shahjahanpur-BJP-Arun Kumar Sagar-268418
Sultanpur-BJP-Maneka Sanjai Gandhi-14526
Unnao- BJP- Swami Sakshi Ji Maharaj-400956
This time, Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Congress chief Rahul Gandhi, SP supremo Akhilesh Yadav, Home Minister Rajnath Singh, Textile Minister Smriti Irani, BJP MP Hema Malini, Bhojpuri artist Dinesh Lal Yadav aka Nirahua, senior Congress leader Salman Khurshid and former UP Congress chief Raj Babbar are star candidates in the fray.
HERE ARE THE HIGHLIGHTS OF UTTAR PRADESH LOK SABHA ELECTION RESULTS 2019:
11: 20 pm: Samajwadi Party leader Dimple Yadav trailing by 10199 votes from Kannauj.
11: 00 pm: On defeating Union Minister Manoj Sinha by 1,19,392 votes, SP-BSP candidate Afzal Ansari said he welcomes the verdict of the people of Ghazipur and considers himself blessed.
10: 30 pm: BSP’s Malook Nagar declared as the winner from Bijnor constituency. Malook Nagar was in contest with BJP’s Raja Bhartendra Singh. He has won the electoral contest with 69941 votes.
10: 15 pm: SP chief Akhilesh Yadav is leading from Azamgarh constituency against BJP’s star campaigner Dinesh Lal Yadav aka Nirahua. Akhilesh Yadav is in the lead with 259289 votes.
10: 00 pm: Congress chief Sonia Gandhi secures victory from her homeground constituency Rae Bareli. She has defeated BJP candidate Dinesh Pratap Singh with a vote margin of 167178.
9: 45 pm| Among the key candidates, SP chief Mulayam Singh Yadav is leading against BJP’s Prem Singh Shakya in Mainpuri. Meanwhile, Hema Malini is leading against RLD’s Kunwar Narendra Singh in Mathura.
9: 30 pm| Home minister and BJP’s key candidate Rajnath Singh has won from Lucknow seat. He has defeated Shatrughan Sinha’s wife and SP candidate Poonam Shatrughan Sinha with a margin of 347302 votes.
9: 15 pm| BJP’s Bhanu Pratap Singh Verma has secured victory from Jalaun once again in 2019 general elections. He has defeated BSP’s Ajay Singh with a vote margin of 158477. Bhanu Pratap Singh Verma also won in Lok Sabha Elections 2014
9: 00 pm| BSP’s Kunwar Danish Ali has defeated BJP’s Kanwar Singh Tanwar in Amroha. Kunwar Danish Ali took a lead with 63248 vote margin. Kanwar Singh Tanwar came to power in 2014 General elections with a vote margin of 138429.
8: 45 pm| BJP candidate Sakshi Maharaj has won Uttar Pradesh’s constituency Unnao with a margin of 400956 votes. He was contesting against Samajwadi Party’s Arun Shanker Shukla. Sakshi Maharaj also won from Unnao seat in 2014 general elections.
8: 30 pm| Prime Minister Narendra Modi has been declared as the winner from Uttar Pradesh’s hot seat Varanasi. He defeated Samajwadi Party candidate Shalini Yadav by a margin of 479505 votes. In 2014, Narendra Modi won by a vote margin of 371784.
8: 15 pm| The Election Commission Of India have declared more winners from Uttar Pradesh. BJP’s Satish Kumar Gautam has won from Aligarh, BJP’s Virendra Singh has won from Ballia, BJP’s R.K Singh Patel has won from Banda, BJP’s Kirti Vardhan Singh has won from Gonda, BJP’s Rajvir Diler has own from Hathras, SP’s Dr S. T. Hasan has won from Moradabad, BSP’s Girish Chandra has won from Nagina, BJP’s Feroze Varun Gandhi has won from Pilibhit, Pakauri Lal Kol from Robertsganj, Haji Fazlur Rehman from Saharanpur and Ravinder from Salempur.
8:00 pm| Reacting to Lok Sabha Elections 2019 verdict, BSP chief Mayawati said that the results are contrary to the expectations and sentiments of the people. She added that the public ought to take a stand when all institutions of the country start bending their knees in front of the government. The mahagathbandhan of SP-BSP is trailing with 18 seats in Uttar Pradesh.
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) Chief, Mayawati: Today's result is against the expectations and sentiments of people. Anyway, when all the institutions of the country start bending their knees before the government, the public has to take a stand. #ElectionResults2019 pic.twitter.com/Qu7pTh4yNw
— ANI UP (@ANINewsUP) May 23, 2019
07: 40 pm| PM Modi said people of the country made the BJP win under PM Modi’s leadership, the Congress had to face defeat in over 17 states. He added that the Congress had got a big zero in 17 states of the country. PM Narendra Modi addresses the party workers at BJP HQ.
07: 25 pm| Addressing BJP workers at BJP HQ, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that people came out to vote despite the high temperature. He said that India has set an example for the entire world with its democratic policy. The prime minister added that a series of Lok Sabha elections were held in the country after independence, however, the 2019 elections made a record with the highest turnout seen at Lok Sabha elections so far.
07: 10 pm|
#LokSabhaElections2019: Union Minister @rajnathsingh, former MP CM @ChouhanShivraj, BJP chief @AmitShah, MEA @SushmaSwaraj, Union Minister @JPNadda and senior leader @TCGEHLOT are present at the event.@BJP4India pic.twitter.com/3iNc6YXwyH
— NewsX (@NewsX) May 23, 2019
06: 45 pm|
— ANI UP (@ANINewsUP) May 23, 2019
06: 30 pm| Ravindra Shyamnarayan Shukla aka Ravi Kishan has won the Gorakhpur seat for BJP with a huge margin of 301664 votes. Gorakhpur is CM Yogi’s bastion and a Hindi-heartland seat where BJP has good backing and support.
06: 10 pm| World leaders congratulate Prime Minister Narendra Modi for registering a thumping victory. Australian PM, Israeli PM, French President, Maldives President, Sri Lankan PM, Mauritius PM have extended their wishes over and Twitter to PM Modi.
06: 00 pm|Senior Congress leader Randeep Singh Surjewala said that reports of Congress chief Rahul Gandhi offering resignation are incorrect. In the presser, when asked on fixing responsibility for loss, Rahul Gandhi said that matter is between him and his party.
5: 45 pm| In his press conference, Rahul Gandhi has hinted that Smriti Irani has secured a victory in Uttar Pradesh’s Amethi constituency. He said that their ideological fight will continue and thanked the party cadre. He added that they will introspect the losses later.
5: 30 pm| Rahul Gandhi and Priyanka Gandhi are addressing a press conference in New Delhi. In his press conference, the Congress president has said that people have given their mandate. He has congratulated PM Narendra Modi and BJP for gaining a thumping majority in Lok Sabha Elections 2019.
4: 30 pm| BJP candidate Akshaibar Lal has secured victory in Uttar Pradesh’s Bahraich constituency. Akshaibar Lal has defeated SP candidate Shabbir Balmiki by a margin of 128752 votes.
4: 10 pm| According to the reports, PM Narendra Modi will meet party workers today at the party office at 5.30 pm. BJP Parliamentary board meeting is scheduled for Thursday.
4: 00 pm| Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath has congratulated Prime Minister Narendra Modi as early trends predict a huge victory for BJP and NDA. He has also extended his wishes to BJP party president Amit Shah. Amit Shah is leading in Gujarat’s Gandhinagar Lok Sabha constituency.
3: 40 pm| BJP’s Sakshi Maharaj is in the lead with 4, 35, 744 votes from Unnao constituency. He is treading ahead against Congress candidate Annu Tandon and SP candidate Arun Shanker Shukla, who are trailing behind with 1,04, 064 and 2,05, 400 votes respectively.
3: 20 pm| Smriti Irani is leading in Amethi Lok Sabha constituency with 1,04,498 votes. Previously in 2014 elections, Congress president Rahul Gandhi won the seat with 1,07,903 votes and defeated Smriti Irani.
03:00 pm| As PM Narendra Modi-led NDA treads towards victory, the man himself has ended his silence on his official Twitter account. PM Modi has tweeted, ‘India wins yet again’! He has further underlined the aim of building a strong and inclusive India.
सबका साथ + सबका विकास + सबका विश्वास = विजयी भारत
Together we grow.
Together we prosper.
Together we will build a strong and inclusive India.
India wins yet again! #VijayiBharat
— Chowkidar Narendra Modi (@narendramodi) May 23, 2019
02: 45 pm| BJP is leading the electoral race in Uttar Pradesh with 60 seats. The mahagathbandhan, which the alliance of Samajwadi Party, Bahujan Samaj Party and Rashtriya Lok Dal, is trailing with 19 seats. Congress, on the other hand, is likely to face a massive defeat as it is leading on only 1 seat.
02: 30 pm| Uttar Pradesh Yogi Adityanath is keeping a close eye on Lok Sabha Election results 2019 in Lucknow. There is an evident Modi wave as early trends predict a massive victory of BJP and its alliances. BJP and its alliances are leading in 59 constituencies while the mahagathbandhan is leading in 20 seats.
— ANI UP (@ANINewsUP) May 23, 2019
02: 25 pm| BJP to hold a parliamentary board meeting at 5.30 pm today. Key BJP leaders are expected to attend the meeting at the party headquarters in New Delhi.
01: 50 pm| BJP supporters throng the party headquarters in Uttar Pradesh as the saffron party inches closer to a record mandate, even as celebrations erupt in all party headquarters across the country. People raise slogans of ‘Modi once again’, ‘Har Har Modi’ and ‘Vande Mataram’.
01: 35 pm| Firebrand leader and monk Sakshi Maharaj is leading at the Unnao seat with more than 348865 votes. He is followed by Samajwadi Party’s Arun Shanker Shukla with 2,05,400 votes. On the 3rd spot, Congress Anu Tandon has trailing with 1, 04, 064 votes.
01: 25 pm| Israel Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has congratulated PM Narendra Modi. In a tweet, Netanyahu said, the election results are another approval from the people and way he leads world’s largest democracy is great. Together both the leaders will continue to strengthen the great friendship between India and Israel and lead to new peaks.
01:15 pm| Sri Lanka President Maithripala Sirisena and PM Ranil Wickremesinghe have congratulated Prime Minister Narendra Modi for a magnificent victory in Lok Sabha elections 2019. As per the trends, BJP is likely to land near 300-mark alone and NDA will secure more than 350-seats.
01: 00 pm| In the intense electoral contest, Samajwadi Party chief Akhilesh Yadav is leading with 100161 votes in Azamgarh. He is contesting against Bhojpuri actor Dinesh Lal Yadav aka Nirahua. Meanwhile, SP Patriarch Mulayam Singh is leading the electoral contest with 105487 votes.
12:50 pm| BJP candidate VK Singh is leading the electoral contest from Uttar Pradesh’s Ghaziabad constituency with 312047 votes. In Ghaziabad, VK Singh is contesting against Congress’s Dolly Sharma, SP’s Suresh Bansal and PSPL’s Sewa Ram Kasana.
12: 40 pm| Prime Minister Narendra Modi is far ahead in the Varanasi contest with a margin of 183186 votes against Samajwadi Party candidate Shalini Yadav. Congress candidate Ajay Rai, who had bagged the second position last time, is trailing on the third spot right now.
12: 30 pm| Bahujan Samaj Party is leading on 11 seats in Uttar Pradesh, Samajwadi Party is ahead on 8 seats. While Congress and Apna Dal one. Samajwadi Party heavyweights Mulayam Singh Yadav and Akhilesh Yadav are leading on their respective seats Mainpuri and Azamgarh.
12:20 pm| As per the latest trends, BJP’s vote share is near 50% or above:
- Himachal: 68.8%
- Gujarat: 61.7%
- Uttarakhand: 60.1%
- UP: 59%
- MP: 58.5%
- Rajasthan: 58.4%
- Haryana: 58%
- Delhi: 56.7%
- Karnataka: 51.7%
- Chhattisgarh: 49.7%
- Jharkhand: 49.2%
12: 10 pm| The Bahujan Samaj Party is leading on 11 seats in Uttar Pradesh, Samajwadi Party is ahead on 8 seats. While Congress and Apna Dal one. BJP stalwarts, including Union ministers Maneka Gandhi in Sultanpur and Santosh Gangwar in Bareilly, were ahead of their rivals after the first round of counting.
11: 50 am| Samajwadi Party president Akhilesh Yadav is leading the electoral race in Uttar Pradesh’s Azamgarh constituency. Contesting against Bhojpuri superstar Dinesh Lal Yadav aka Nirahua, Akhilesh Yadav is leading with 32757 votes.
11: 40 am| As Prime Minister Narendra Modi leads the electoral race in Uttar Pradesh’s Varanasi, his mother Heeraben Modi has greeted the media outside her residence in Gandhinagar. In Varanasi, PM Narendra Modi is leading by 144860 votes. He is contesting against Ajay Rai and Shalini Yadav.
11: 30 am| Uttar Pradesh is witnessing a stiff competition between BJP and Mahagathbandhan. According to early trends, BJP is leading with 55 seats followed by the alliance by Samajwadi Party, Bahujan Samaj Party and Rashtriya Lok Dal, i.e Mahagathbandhan with 23 seats. Congress is trailing the electoral race with 2 seats.
11:00 am| Smriti Irani is ahead of the electoral race against Rahul Gandhi from Amethi parliamentary constituency. The Union minister is leading with 4300 votes. In 2014 elections, Congress president Rahul Gandhi had secured a thumping victory with more than 1 lakh votes.
10: 40 am| BJP+ is leading in Uttar Pradesh with 54 seats followed by SP-BSP with 24 seats while INC+ is trailing with only 2 seats. Narendra Modi is leading in Varanasi, Smriti Irani is leading against Rahul Gandhi in Amethi and Jayapradha is leading against SP’s Azam Khan.
10: 30 am| After a couple of rounds of counting, Union Minister and BJP candidate Smriti Irani is ahead of Congress chief Rahul Gandhi by 19,00 votes. Rahul Gandhi was ahead earlier and now in the rat race, Irani has taken the lead.
10: 20 am| Uttar Pradesh’s Saharanpur witnessed the highest voter turnout in the Lok Sabha Elections 2019. The voter turnout in Saharanpur this year was 70.82%. In the constituency, NDA has fielded BJP candidate Raghav Lakhanpal, UPA has fielded Congress candidate Imran Masood and Mahagathbandhan has fielded BSP candidate Hazi Fazlur Rehman.
10: 10 am| In early rounds of counting, BJP has secured a vote percentage of 51% and Mahagathbandhan has secured a vote percentage of 39. Meanwhile, the vote percentage of Congress in Uttar Pradesh is 6%.
10: 05 am| Congress president Rahul Gandhi is leading Uttar Pradesh’s Amethi constituency. He is surpassing Union Minister Smriti Irani in terms of the vote count. Interestingly, Rahul Gandhi is also leading the electoral race in Kerala’s Wayanad.
10: am| UPA chief Sonia Gandhi is now leading in Raebareli with 7432 votes. Raebareli is one of the Congress’ bastions and the party has a safe vote bank on this seat.
9: 55 am| Prime Minister Narendra Modi is leading in Varanasi with over 20, 000 votes. Party president Amit Shah, on the other hand, is leading with over 50,000 votes in Gujarat’s Gandhinagar constituency.
9: 45 am| After EVM’s developed technical snag, the counting of votes in Amethi has halted due to a technical glitch, say reports. It is reported that the servers at the polling station have stopped working.
9: 35 am| As per the latest trends, BJP candidate Jayapradha is leading against Samajwadi Party’s heavyweight leader Azam Khan. Recently, both the leaders had engaged in the underwear controversy, after which, Azam Khan was criticised.
9: 30 am| BJP’s Maneka Gandhi and Varun Gandhi are leading on their seats. Maneka is ahead by 1,100 votes from Sultanpur seat against Congress’ Sanjay Singh. He son, Varun Gandhi is also in leading the trends from the Mau constituency.
9: 15 am: BJP candidate Smriti Irani is leading the electoral race by 5,700 votes in Amethi. Congress president Rahul Gandhi is trailing the constituency. Latest trends show electoral gains for BJP with 32 seats, SP-BSP with 11 seats and INC with 2 seats.
9: 05 am: According to the election result trends, PM Narendra Modi, Amit Shah, General VK Singh, Ravi Kishan, Varun Gandhi, Akhilesh Yadav are leading. BJP is leading on 33 seats and Mahagathbandhan on 8 seats.
9: 00 am: From Uttar Pradesh, Ghaziabad seat Union Minister General VK Singh who is contesting on BJP’s ticket is leading. A neck to neck contest is underway between VK Singh and Mahagathbandhan candidate Suresh Bansal.
8:55 am: According to latest trends, Former Samajwadi Party chief Mulayam Singh is trailing from Uttar Pradesh’s Mainpuri constituency. He is contesting against BJP candidate Prem Singh Shakya in Mainpuri. The elections in Mainpuri were held on April 23, 2019.
8: 50 am| Congress President Rahul Gandhi is trailing in Uttar Pradesh. Union Minister Smriti Irani in lead with 2000 votes. As per latest trends, BJP is leading in Uttar Pradesh with 17 seats while SP-BSP is trailing with 7 seats and INC is trailing with 3 seats.
8: 40 am| Bhojpuri actor-turned-politician Ravi Kishan started his day in a spiritual manner by offering prayers. According to the reports, Ravi Kishan is leading the seat. He also has an upper hand as he is famous among the people of the state and constituency is hometown to Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath.
8: 35 am| Prime Minister Narendra Modi is leading in Varanasi. UPA has fielded Ajay Rai while SP has fielded Shalini Yadav against PM Modi. Meanwhile, BJP is ahead in the electoral race with 16 seats.
8: 30 am| As per trends, Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh is leading from the Lucknow. Opposition candidates Poonam Sinha (Mahagathbandhan) and Acharya Pramod Krishnan (Congress) are the other contestants in fray. Rajnath Singh had won the Lucknow seat in 2014 and now eyeing to retain it.
8: 20 am| Congress President Rahul Gandhi is leading from Amethi. In Amethi, Rahul Gandhi is contesting against Union Minister Smriti Irani. On the other hand, BJP is leading in Aonla Lok Sabha constituency.
8: 10 am| According to the early trends, BJP and INC are at par in Uttar Pradesh with 3 seats each. They are followed by SP-BSP with 2 seats. Meanwhile, others are yet to make an entry.
8: 00 am| The Election Commission of India has started counting the votes of Lok Sabha Elections 2019. The numbers will be out soon. In the polls, all eyes are on key candidates Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Congress chief Rahul Gandhi, Home Minister Rajnath Singh. The citizens of Uttar Pradesh had polled in their votes in all 7 phases.
07: 30 am| The electoral faiths of star candidates Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Congress chief Rahul Gandhi, SP supremo Akhilesh Yadav, Home Minister Rajnath Singh, Textile Minister Smriti Irani, BJP MP Hema Malini, Bhojpuri artist Dinesh Lal Yadav aka Nirahua, senior Congress leader Salman Khurshid and former UP Congress chief Raj Babbar will be decided today.
07: 15 am| In 2014, BJP had registered a thumping victory in Uttar Pradesh and bagged 71 seats out of 80. The saffron front will try to continue the dominance in the state in this election also, while opposition parties put their best to stop them.
07: 00 am| The stakes are high in Uttar Pradesh as 80 Lok Sabha seats could turn out to be the kingmaker. Elections in Uttar Pradesh were held in all 7 phases and its time for the results. The counting will be held through EVM-VVPAT machines and will begin at 8 am.
06: 50 am| The contest is between BJP, SP-BSP-RLD alliance (Mahagathbandhan) and Congress. Voting for the 80 Lok Sabha seats was held in all 7 phases from April 11 to May 19, 2019. The counting of results will start at 8 am and it is expected that results may delay due to re-counting of votes through VVPATs.
06:41 am| The election commission of India will start counting of votes for the 542 Lok Sabha election at 8 am. The results will be counted by the Electronic Voting Machine and verified by the Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) machines. The contest in Uttar Pradesh is in between BJP, Mahagathbandhan (SP-BSP-RLD) and Congress.