Histories of India and China go a long way. Both countries have sharp contrasts in terms of their efforts for social revolution, their struggle for independence and even their constitutions and forms of government. While India followed Mahatma Gandhi’s non-violent civil disobedience in its struggle for freedom, China pursued Mao Zedong’s revolutionary violence.

India is a constitutional democracy and has the longest written constitution of the world. The constitution is the supreme law of India. It outlays the framework of fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. While India’s constitution accords fundamental rights to the people, claims of violations of constitutional rights cannot be used in Chinese courts. 

Whereas China is a socialist nation and supremacy of socialist ideology prevails in the country. The Chinese Constitution accepts the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC). While India’s constitution is the longest in the world, China’s constitution is comparatively brief and works on the principle of democratic centralism. The first Chinese constitution was declared in 1954 while the current version was produced in 1982 and there were significant differences between each of these versions. The 1982 constitution  has had 5 significant amendments since its adoption. 

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The constitution of China states that, “The People’s Republic of China is a socialist state under the people’s democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants. The socialist system is the basic system of the People’s Republic of China. Disruption of the socialist system by any organization or individual is prohibited.”

Theoretically, all power lies with the people, but in practice, the country is ruled solely by the Communist Party leaders.